A German school of art and design founded in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius and closed by the Nazis in 1933. German for “House of Building” the school believed that elegantly designed items could be mass produced using the techniques and materials of industrial fabrication and manufacture. Underlying the Bauhaus aesthetic was a strong Utopianism and the belief in simplified forms and unadorned functionalism. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography. Even after its closing the school exerted a strong influence on modernist architecture and design and the teaching of art history. Following its closing many of its teachers and students immigrated to the United States.